A collection of 20-odd articles covering most of the major sustainability topics (some in more detail than others), this is an excellent book to really dig into the various problems and solutions facing the world. Many of the chapters are available free online.
The Post-Carbon Reader (various authors)
The Omnivore's Dilemma by Michael Pollan
If you're interested in the sustainability of food, this is a great starting point - well written, engaging stories about four very different meals, and what the resource implications of each of them are.
Plan B by Lester Brown
(Various versions, free online) Plan B covers both evidence of a growing resource problem - with a focus on water and food - and possible energy-based solutions to address it. Continuously updated and with a lot of data, it's worth a read, and is great for discussion groups.
Garbology: Our Dirty Love Affair with Trash
Garbology digs through our epic piles of trash to reveal not just what we throw away, but who we are and where our society is headed. Are we destined to remain the country whose number-one export is scrap—America as China’s trash compactor—or will the country that invented the disposable economy pioneer a new and less wasteful path? The real secret at the heart of Garbology may well be the potential for a happy ending buried in our landfill. Waste, Humes writes, is the one environmental and economic harm that ordinary working Americans have the power to change—and prosper in the process.
EcoJaunt was a 1 year project to create instructional content on all aspects of DIY sustainability, from food to energy to ideology. Their informational videos are a great educational resource.
Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things
A landmark work by architect William McDonough and chemist Michael Braungart, this text discusses ways in which we can design for "upcycling" or the reuse of products into more valuable components at the end of their lives. McDonough and Braungart cast aside the traditional "cradle to grave" way of thinking about product design and instead propose designing for decomposition and reuse of components in a manner that creates new and better value than the original parts. Through case studies in products, buildings, and even communities, the authors pave a way for reshaping the world in a more sustainable mold.
Cadillac Desert by Marc Reisner
A phenomenal history of water and water projects in the American west. If you live there, plan to live there, or just care about water, you should read this.
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine v1.0
This is a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine which uses wind energy to drive things like air and water pumps for cooling, irrigation and similar, or an alternator/generator for producing electricity. The turbine uses the ~40% mechanically efficient Lenz2 lift+drag design. It is made entirely from scrap materials except for the bolts and pop rivets, and should cost about $15-$30 for the three vane version, which can be made by one person in six hours without much effort. Adding an extra three vanes to the bottom, as shown at the end of the animation to the left, will give twice as much power and also greater stability as the contact point is then moved to the center of the turbine rather than the base. The three vane version has been successfully survival tested to 80 km/h sustained winds and the six vane version to 105 km. Both will do more, but exactly how much has not yet been ascertained.
The Story of Stuff
Ever wonder where your trash ends up? Annie Leonard did. To answer her own question, she traced products from their inception to disposal, tracking along the way how they were disposed of and what "away" actually meant. What she found reveals the sad state our products face at the end of their useful lives. This work will make you rethink the way products are designed and the impacts of throwing away your trash.
The Natural Step
The Natural Step is an organization for business and communities to engage with their operations to improve their own sustainability. They offer consulting services, a magazine, and toolkits to help improve the operations of various organizations. Some of their handbooks are available online for residential and general sustainability information.